The editors ofOffshore magazine have scoured the globe for the latest and greatest measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools for 2011, and here is the result. The following pages update the annual MWD/LWD services directory. The full survey is available for download at www.offshore-mag.com.
Baker Hughes says its tools are highly modular to facilitate optimal sensor placement within the bottomhole assembly (BHA) for each application. Services include:
- AutoTrak V is a rotary steerable system that drills vertical intervals with excellent borehole quality, eliminating the need for correction runs and sliding time associated with steerable motors. It does not need additional MWD systems due to an integrated inclination sensor in the steering unit. It is available for 5¾-in. – 28-in. hole sizes.
- AutoTrak eXpress HDL is a rotary steerable system that takes the benefits of continuous drillstring rotation to those high dogleg applications where conventional mud motor systems were predominant. This technology provides the ability to drill aggressive curves ensuring precise wellbore placement and the best borehole quality. This service is available for 8½-in. – 9 7/8-in. hole sizes.
- The AziTrak deep azimuthal resistivity service, a fully integrated MWD/LWD tool that is compatible with the AutoTrak rotary steerable service, is now also available for 57⁄8-in. – 6¾-in. hole sizes. The AziTrak service provides directional, azimuthal gamma imaging, multiple propagation resistivity (MPR), deep azimuthal propagation resistivity imaging, temperature, annular pressure, and vibration stick/slip measurements from a single sub. The deep azimuthal propagation resistivity measurement delivers an image for the real-time detection of approaching boundaries at any azimuthal angle. The image provides easy-to-read information to the operator to navigate the wellpath into and through the reservoir.
- The MagTrak advanced magnetic resonance (MR) while drilling service is now also available for 57⁄8-in. – 6 ¾-in. hole sizes. The service delivers matrix-independent porosity data, including total and partial porosities, permeability index, light hydrocarbon saturation and - as the only LWD MR tool - real-time T2 distribution data.
- SeismicTrak – Seismic-while-drilling service reduces seismic uncertainties when landing wells in right angles or setting casing points before pressure or reservoir zones.
- Real-Time Shear Service is used for a measured shear in both slow and fast formations. The main benefit is that it provides in real time additional geomechanical information such as bulk modulus, Young's modulus, Shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio for proactive wellbore stability and optimal drilling rates.
- The azimuthal ZoneTrak G integrated in the AutoTrak steering unit provides up to 16 sectors azimuthal gamma image of the borehole very close to the bit. It is used in geo-stopping applications to avoid entering a reservoir or a trouble zone, and helps with geosteering decisions in real time to place the well in the sweet spot of the reservoir.
- The steerable drilling liner (SDL) combines current proven technology in a new system to overcome the most challenging drilling and completion applications. The system consists of a retrievable and changeable inner string with a pilot BHA and an outer liner string. Inner and outer strings are connected via a running tool. A unique feature of the system is the possibility to change the pilot BHA while the liner remains on bottom.
GE Oil & Gas
- GE Oil & Gas offers a full range of downhole drilling and wireline logging technologies that are proven in wells of all types. The simple modular designs give operators the high performance and flexibility needed to obtain accurate data and lower operating costs.
- GE's fully integrated drilling measurement tools help optimize well placement for maximum hydrocarbon recovery by using accurate orientation, natural gamma ray and resistivity measurement systems.
- The Centerfire resistivity system takes well placement to the next level with a measurement that helps distinguish hydrocarbons from rock and water. This helps place the well where production rates and hydrocarbon recovery can be maximized. Centerfire uses the propagation wave resistivity technique, transmitting an electromagnetic wave into the formation and analyzing it upon receipt at the Centerfire collar. The signal's attenuation and phase shift are proportional to the resistivity of the formation, which helps identify the type of material around the wellbore.
- GE Oil & Gas designs, manufactures and services MWD/LWD systems and sensors for purchase by customers worldwide.
Over the last year, Sperry Drilling has introduced numerous industry-firsts in MWD/LWD technology including a new tool capable of operating in HP/HT environments previously beyond the reach of existing technology. Sperry Drilling also has developed a new azimuthal sonic tool that provides data previously unavailable in the drilling environment, and a state-of-the-art drilling mechanics tool. Additionally, Sperry Drilling is field-testing a new borehole imaging tool that works in any mud type.
- In HP/HT technology, the ExtremeHT-200 tool operates at temperatures up to 200°C (392°F) and 25,000 psi. This new HP/HT tool includes directional, gamma ray, internal and annular pressure and vibration sensors, with additional sensors planned. Sperry Drilling is developing the UltraHT-230 tool for temperatures up to 230°C (446°F) and pressure to 30,000 psi and will undergo field testing in late 2011.
- The company has completed successful field tests of the XBA sonic tool, a new azimuthal, crossed-dipole tool. Containing four discrete sources, four azimuthal receiver arrays, and four azimuthal ultrasonic stand-off transceivers, the XBAT is sensitive to shear anisotropy in the same manner as wireline sonic tools, but exploits the full borehole coverage afforded by rotation of the LWD tool.
- The DrillDOC drilling mechanics tool is available in 6 ¾ in. and 8 in. sizes. It measures the weight and torque on the bit, and the bending moment and direction of bending in the BHA.
- The GeoSharp All-Mud Imager Tool provides high-resolution acoustic images in all mud types and, for the first time in MWD, resistivity images in non-conductive drilling fluids.
New Schlumberger technologies include the PowerDrive X6 high- performance directional drilling system, the PowerDrive Archer high build rate rotary steerable system (RSS), and the SonicScope multipole sonic-while-drilling service. The Orion II high-speed telemetry system supported the successful drilling and completion, in early 2011, of the world's longest well, in eastern Siberia.
- The PowerDrive X6 system has been designed to bring RSS benefits to harsh well environments. Its robust design minimizes the effects of external environment factors, increasing the operating envelope to handle higher mud weights, wider flow ranges and drilling dynamics, aggressive muds, and debris. This push-the-bit RSS tool provides full directional control while rotating the drillstring, improving rates of penetration and increasing the accuracy of wellbore placement. Full rotation reduces drag, decreases the risk of sticking, and achieves superior hole cleaning. It also improves wellbore smoothness and decreases tortuosity, which reduces drilling torque, eliminates unplanned wiper trips, and simplifies installation of completions equipment. In field tests, the PowerDrive X6 RSS has drilled more than 1 million ft (304,800 m) and 32,000 operating hours. Operators have experienced more than 25% improvement in reliability, most noticeably in smaller hole sizes.
- The PowerDrive Archer high build rate RSS delivers well profiles previously possible only with motors, yet with the rate of penetration (ROP) and wellbore quality of a fully rotating RSS. It has internal pads that push against an articulated sleeve pivoted on a universal joint to point the bit in the desired direction. All external parts on the RSS rotate—a feature that reduces the risk of mechanical or differential sticking and improves wellbore quality for easier well completion.
- The SonicScope multipole sonic-while-drilling service provides multipole measurements to consistently deliver reliable compressional and shear data. It is the only service in the industry with a dedicated mode for acquiring Stoneley waveforms while drilling. Completely reassessed strategies for handling and processing the LWD acoustic data, coupled with extensive modeling, ensure a predictable response in almost any environment. When shear slowness is higher than mud slowness, as is often the case when drilling through unconsolidated sediments in deepwater, a quadrupole LWD tool is needed to provide the shear measurement.
- The SonicScope service delivers wide-band P- and S-wave data up to 600 μs/ft, irrespective of formation and mud type. In a 100-well field test campaign, the SonicScope 475 service supplied high-quality multipole data comparable to wireline sonic reference logs even in highly damaged and unstable formations. The robust, real-time data can be used for sonic-to-seismic ties that allow bit-on-seismic positioning and minimize well placement and casing positioning uncertainty. In addition, a while-tripping mode provides multi-pass analysis and top-of-cement evaluation.
Weatherford has made the following updates, changes, and introductions to its portfolio of MWD/LWD tools:
- Introduction of the PressureWave, a formation pressure-testing tool in a 6 ¾-in. size, capable of providing real-time, high-resolution, formation pressure data comparable to wireline measurements. The PressureWave can be used at any point along the LWD BHA to assist with identifying reservoir fluids, managing drilling fluid density, and identifying reservoir compartmentalization.
- The ShockWave Sonic tool is now available in a 4 ¾-in. size. The monopole acoustic tool is used in formation evaluation and drilling optimization operations to provide reliable, high-quality sonic data in real-time applications such as seismic time-depth correlation, pore pressure determination, and porosity evaluation.
- SAGR Spectral Azimuthal Gamma Ray (GR) sensor is now available in a 4 ¾-in. size. The SAGR will simultaneously obtain real-time, wireline-quality spectral measurements and precise total gamma ray measurements. In addition, the SAGR sensor provides azimuthal measurements, both rotating and sliding. Applications for the SAGR sensor include; spectral KUTh gamma ray (GR) measurements for clay typing, lithology identification, and mineralogy, azimuthal GR/borehole imaging to detect bed boundaries in high angle wells, GR logging and imaging to determine dip angle, and real-time azimuthal total GR logging for geosteering.
Notes for the survey
- (a) Dependent on mud weight, hydraulics, data transmission and turbine selection.
- (b) All directional accuracies are to 2 Sigma confidence.
- (c) All tool combinations require a directional tool (D, OnTrak, or NaviTrak) as a basic component ex. D+LithoTrak+MPR = 69.4.
- (d) All generic and environment specifications are included in the directional category.
- (e) Basic AutoTrak configuration consists of near-bit inclination + gamma ray + multiple propagation resistivity + vibration + directional sensor + modular connection.
- (f) Basic Navigator configuration consists of near-bit inclination + gamma ray + multiple propagation resistivity + modular connection.
- (g) Static and dynamic WOB, TOB, bending moment, azimuthal bending tool face, continuous inclination, annular and bore pressure, string RPM, lateral and axial acceleration. Also includes motor RPM and downhole drilling dysfunction diagnostics.
- (h) Commercially available in 4¾–in. and 6¾–in. tool sizes.
- (i) Max DLS values are a function of various parameters such as BHA configuration, well profile, hole size, drilling mode (build, drop, and turn). For optimum tool capabilities and limits, expert company advice is required (BHASYSPro analysis); therefore please contact your local Baker Hughes representative for a DLS calculation based on your specific BHA.
- (j) Requires interface sub to IntelliServ wired-pipe network (commercially available in 4¾-in., 6¾-in., and 8¼-in. tool sizes).
- (k) Lengths are exemplary for standard BHA setups, but may vary according to combination of additional modules. Lengths and measurement points in AutoTrak X-treme systems may vary according to power section properties. The hard-wired modular X-treme mud motor allows addition of optional near-bit MWD/LWD modules below the motor, including real-time and memory data transmission.
- (l) HDSM, CWRG, DNSC, CLSS, DPM, DFT, AWR tools are data-linked and may be configured in any order.
- (m) 2DRS is a stand-alone tool or run with any M/LWD system.
- (n) PathMaker is a stand-alone tool or run with any M/LWD system.
- (o) Accelerometers for vibration and inclination at bit, strain gages for weight and torque, transducer for annular pressure.
- (p) Down hole neutron and gamma ray sources are wireline retrievable.
- (*) Variable transmission rates available as an option with telemetry systems.
- (*) Pressure drops are dependent on mud weight and tool configurations.
- (*) Rotating & Sliding Max DLS limitations listed are for infinite connection life.
- (*) Real-time update periods are variable depending on tool string configurations.
Halliburton/Sperry Drilling Services:
- (q) The attributes of the pulser sub, negative or positive, and the central interface module sub are not included in any of the data listed for the individual measurement subs.
- (r) Length for EMT directional tool includes associated subs required for service.
- (s) Values for EBS are for standard collars; flexed collars are also used and their values are higher for the same nominal tool OD.
- (t) Special tool designs are rated for higher operating temperatures and pressures (HT: up to 175 °C [347°F] and HP up to 30,000 psi).
- (u) When using the negative pulsing system, there is no flow rate range; however, a maximum, tolerable mass flow rate is dictated by erosion concerns, and this limit varies by tool size and design.
- (v) Special tool designs are rated for higher operating temperatures (up to 200˚C) and higher operating pressures (up to 30,000 psi). Some 8-in. tools have an optional larger ID (called 8-in. HF), which will reduce the pressure drop stated and also increase the maximum, tolerable mass flow rate.
- (w) The pressure drop across the negative pulsing valve is the parameter of concern. This parameter is a function of the mudflow rate, the BHA, and the mud properties.
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