Case study: Brunei
The one-trip casing exit milling system was recently tested during an offshore drilling operation in Brunei. The drilling operator planned to drill a casing exit. The well was of intermediate depth, descending about 3,000 ft (914 m) to the top of the window. The primary challenge was the use of a 40-m (131-ft) drilling assembly, which was long and stiff, and needed a large, full-gauge window to accommodate the equipment.
In the past, the operator had made numerous attempts to use standard milling equipment for the casing exit; however, it had always taken multiple trips to get the window long enough for the drilling assemblies to pass through. They wanted to try out the new milling system to address the stiff drilling assembly and window size.
Although there are often many variables involved, drilling a large casing exit usually takes multiple trips. It can be a long process to get the window straightened out; with an investment of 12 to 18 hours to make each downhole trip, it is important to succeed. If the window ultimately cannot be used, it can cost the operator time and money. Costs can reach to $500,000 per day for deepwater and ultra-deepwater wells, so time on the job is a major consideration.
In the Brunei project, the angle at the kick off point for setting the whipstock was 28°. Oil-based mud was used for milling fluid. The bottom trip anchor was set and sheared out, making adjustments to the oil-based mud for carrying the metal shavings out of the hole.
The casing exit operation was performed using an extra-long WindowMaster G2 XL whipstock assembly along with the milling assembly. The casing was 95⁄8-in. outside diameter (OD) and 43.50 lbs. The casing drift was 8½-in. OD. The PathMAKER window mill was 8½-in. OD, as was the upper watermelon mill, for a full drift window. The LongBow (full-gauge mills) milling system coupled with the XL whipstock is designed to cut a straight, full-length window.
During milling, once the mill cut out the window, there was no drag coming out of the window, which indicated that the window was clean. The upper watermelon mill at the bottom of the window reciprocated and cleaned back and forth across the window several times, from 1,423 m to 1,430 m (4,669 ft to 4,692 ft), and it was possible to slide the mill across the window without any problems whether the pumps were shut on or shut off. A combination of circulation, tension, and slack-off weight ensured that the milling system passed through the window easily. Then an additional 30 m (98 ft) of rathole was drilled.
After the window was milled, rathole completed, and cleanliness was ensured, the operator ran an 8½-in. PDC bit with its complex BHA as planned to continue with the drilling operation.
It took nine hours to mill 6 m (20 ft) for the window and six hours to drill the 30 m of rathole. At the average rate of penetration, that equals 2.1 ft/hour on the window milling and 10 ft/hour on the rathole. This saved the operator between 24-30 hours of rig time. The cost of operating this rig was $375,000 per day.
Good casing exits are crucial to reaching previously uneconomical reserves and bypassing trouble. However, the process of cutting a window can be time-consuming, especially in complex environments with the newer BHAs, which come equipped with a wide range of technology to bring data to the surface. Multiple trips are often necessary to ensure that the window exit is clean and large enough for the drilling equipment to pass through.
With its low-dogleg window profile and one-trip milling, this system helped reduce rig time during the Brunei project by a full day, providing cost savings. The well was intermediate in depth but had a long BHA, which indicates that the milling system should be well-suited for deep, complex well geometries, and is beneficial for side tracking where stiff drilling and completion BHAs require low drag access.
In addition to creating a large casing exit window profile, this milling system provides higher-contact forces on a milling BHA, preventing early whipstock ramp departure and providing a straight-window profile with maximized full-width section.
Although results may vary in different operating environments, the Brunei project is fairly typical, with a one day reduction in operating time, offering a significant cost savings to the drilling company.